British Rail (BR) was the national railway operator that operated the country’s national railway network between 1947 and 1997, trading as British National Railway. The name was retained when it was absorbed into Network Rail, the company that now trades as British Rail Europe. It was a forerunner of the modern rail company in the UK, the National Express and has become associated with many of the country’s transport enterprises including the London Heathrow Airport and London City Airport. As the name suggests, it is a private railway, owned by a private shareholder. The shares trade on a market called the Pink Sheet, and are listed for sale to investors worldwide.
The first aspect of rail transport to be nationalised was the Cross Channel Railway, built between France and England in the eighteenth century. In eighteen ninety-nine, the last of the old Queen Elizabeth’s railway lines was brought back online, to offer an improved means of transporting people across the Channel. This development marked the beginning of British Rail. The London railway, running between Victoria and London, the South Coast and the East Coast, the main railway of the time, benefited from the nationalisation of the entire railway system. Although it was the forerunner of the modern London Underground, it was not as successful as the Underground, despite being much bigger.
The main reason why British Rail experienced financial difficulties was poor management of the industry. The lack of financial resources combined with an unstable economy, combined with higher than necessary charges for the services provided, resulted in severe cost cutting measures and the eventual demise of the railway in the nineteen-thirties. Though it was the fault of the privatisationist fervour, the end of beeching the railway system marked the beginning of its decline and marked the beginning of the end for beeching as a transport sector in the UK.
With the coming of electricity, the ability to conduct mass transit came about with railway electrification. The introduction of electric traction and the associated charging stations allowed the provision of high speed rail transport without the need for expensive coalitions of trains and coaches. Electricity powered operations increased with the success of electrification and were first used on the London Underground in the late nineteen hundreds. The massive scale adoption of this new technology marked a turning point in British Rail. As the railway electrification process spread throughout the rest of the country, it became a centralised activity.
Today, most of the lines connecting London to Wales, Scotland and the Midlands have had extensive work done to improve their electrical infrastructure, and as a result, they are able to accommodate very large passenger trains, which were previously not even conceivable. One of the most noticeable changes has been in intercity 125 service, which was previously supplied by a single company, which was responsible for the construction, engineering and maintenance of the line. As part of the reorganisation of British Rail, Virgin had taken over the Intercity 125 route and changed the name to London East Coast. Virgin trains now only offer this route in selected areas, mainly due to the increased need for space on the network. This is an important issue, as London is a very large city, and Virgin’s popularity means that this part of the London Underground has become extremely busy.
The London South Central and London Southeast sectors have also had to undergo substantial changes. The biggest changes have been in relation to service and patronage, as well as to the growth and development of the network. The introduction of the Queen Elizabeth fleet in 2021 has significantly altered the passenger landscape and sector size in this part of London. In addition to being responsible for the increased number of trains on the network, this Queen Elizabeth class passenger train also has the capacity to expand into non-west coast and non-local destinations in the UK. This is important, as non-local services have historically been poorly deployed by British Rail.
The main aim of the Transport for London Corporation (TfL) and the London Boroughs of Camden, Kensington and Chelsea is to support the growth of the existing private sector operators and to continue to develop the capital’s rail network. However, this doesn’t mean that TfL can completely do away with the role of the Corporation in running the public trains. The corporation will continue to cater for the needs of passengers by providing ticketing services and station access. TfL will also continue to operate the Queen Elizabeth and Virgin trains. The quotation needed for this aspect of passenger services transport needs to be provided with details of what the new contractual terms entail.
There are two different aspects of the capital’s rail network, which are the consequence of the privatisation process. These are the South Central Zone and the Southeast Sector. A short analysis will explore each individually. A full analysis will be provided in a separate article.